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Alfaro, A. D., G. G. Fonseca, et al. (2014). "Yield, Viscosity, and Gel Strength of Wami Tilapia (Oreochromis urolepis hornorum) Skin Gelatin: Optimization of the Extraction Process." Food Science and Biotechnology 23(3): 765-773.
                A factorial design and response surface methodology were used to optimize the extraction process of tilapia skin gelatin (Oreochromis urolepis hornorum). The concentrations of NaOH (0.15%-0.35%) and H2SO4 (0.15%-0.35%), the extraction temperature (40 degrees C-60 degrees C), and the extraction time (3-15 h) were independent variables. Response variables were yield (%), viscosity (mPa.s), and gel strength (g). The NaOH (%) and H2SO4 (%) concentrations had significant influences (p<0.05) on viscosity and gel strength, while the extraction temperature (degrees C) and the extraction time (h) showed significant influences (p<0.05) on all dependent variables. Increasing the temperature and extraction time provided higher yields with a reduction in the gelatin viscosity and gel strength. Tilapia fish skin can be used as a source for production of gelatin.
Alfaro, A. D., G. G. Fonseca, et al. (2014). "Characterization of wami tilapia (Oreochromis urolepis hornorum) skin gelatin: microbiological, rheological and structural properties." Food Science and Technology International 20(5): 373-381.
                Gelatin was extracted from the skin of tilapia (Oreochromis urolepis hornorum) and its microbiological, rheological and structural properties were characterized. The tilapia skin gelatin presented typical molecular weight distribution of type I collagen with contents of imino acids (proline+hydroxyproline) of 21.67%. Gel strength and viscosity values were 221 +/- 5.68 g and 5.98 +/- 0.34 cP, respectively, with the maturation time of 18 +/- 1 h, and both parameters increased with the maturation time. Melting and gelling points of 25 degrees C and 21 degrees C, respectively, were obtained for tilapia skin gelatin. The gelatin presented microbiological standards in accordance with the Brazilian Legislation.
Crispim, B. A., A. B. Grisolia, et al. (2014). "Genetic diversity of locally adapted sheep from Pantanal region of Mato Grosso do Sul." Genetics and Molecular Research 12(4): 5458-5466.
                Sheep of the Pantaneiro breed and seven other breeds, raised in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, were genotyped using eight microsatellite loci. The aim of the present study was to determine the genetic variability, phylogenetic relationship, and patterns of gene introgression and miscegenation among the animals surveyed, to obtain information about the genetic structure of locally adapted sheep in Mato Grosso do Sul. A total of 195 animals were used for genetic analysis. The Pantaneiro breed had the largest average number of alleles/locus (9.25), and higher allelic richness (6.95), while the Dorper population had the lowest values for these parameters (4.88 and 3.86, respectively). Analysis of genetic distance values and genetic structure between populations made it possible to characterize these animals with regard to distinct genetic groups. Average expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.72 (Pantaneiro) to 0.55 (Dorper), while average observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.63 (White Dorper) to 0.54 (Dorper). On the basis of the statistical parameters evaluated, it was possible to demonstrate that when compared to other populations, the Pantaneiro breed represented a reservoir of genetic diversity with rare and useful alleles for genetic improvement, emphasizing the importance of preserving the breed.
Crispim, B. A., J. C. V. Sposito, et al. (2014). "Effects of atmospheric pollutants on somatic and germ cells of Tradescantia pallida (Rose) DR HUNT cv. purpurea." Anais Da Academia Brasileira De Ciencias 86(4): 1899-1906.
                Anatomical alterations in leaves and DNA damage in cells caused by the accumulation of atmospheric pollutants can be measured by epidermal leaf analyses and Tradescantia micronuclei assay with early pollen tetrad cells. The present study examined the feasibility of using somatic and germ cells of Tradescantia pallida for biomonitoring purposes in the city of Dourados, state of Mato Grosso do Sul (MS), Brazil. Stomatal, micronucleus and epidermal leaf analyses were performed, using standard methodologies, on plants growing at three locations during six different time periods. Tradescantia micronuclei data were analyzed using SAS 9.2 software package and stomatal data were analyzed using SANEST software. Analyses of stomatal characteristics and micronuclei examination in T. pallida were found to be an efficient tool for monitoring atmospheric pollution. The micronucleus assay suggested that the number of micronuclei in early pollen tetrad cells was related to the intensity of vehicular traffic. Increased number of epidermal cells and stomata and increased stomatal density observed at locations with greater vehicular traffic are likely physiological responses of those plants to the increased gas exchange in highly polluted environments.
Darbem, M. P., A. R. Oliveira, et al. (2014). "Hybrid material from Zn[aminoacid](2) applied in the thio-Michael synthesis." Tetrahedron Letters 55(37): 5179-5181.
                Recently, methodologies that are in accordance with green chemistry principles have been garnering increasing attention. One of the most applied methods in this field is heterogeneous catalysis. In this context, many catalysts have been developed, and there is one remarkable class that has emerged: hybrid materials. Such heterogeneous catalysts are developed from organic and inorganic portions, especially from amino acids and metal salts, which are commonly found in the literature. Herein, we introduce Zn[Pro](2) and Zn[Gly](2) as heterogeneous catalysts in thio-Michael reactions via the implementation of two methods: via (1) a magnetic stirrer and (2) via an ultrasound device; the latter method resulted in minimally increased reaction yields in all cases. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Falco, W. F., A. M. Queiroz, et al. (2014). "Interaction between chlorophyll and silver nanoparticles: A close analysis of chlorophyll fluorescence quenching." Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology a-Chemistry 299: 203-209.
                Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) are among the most widely produced and used nanomaterial due to their antimicrobial and antibacterial properties, allowing a wide range of commercial applications. Thereby, the increasing use of Ag NPs should inevitably lead to the release and accumulation of these NPs into the environment, resulting in adverse effects on plants, animals and humans. Chlorophyll fluorescence (ChlF) has been proposed as a non-destructive and accurate tool for detecting the impacts of environmental stress on plants. Little is known about the photophysical behavior of plants when exposed to a metallic NPs-containing environment. The present study evaluated the interaction between chlorophyll (Chl) and Ag NPs, over a wide range of nanoparticle concentrations (from 0 mu M to 200.0 mu M), by monitoring the ChlF. The results reveal that the ChIF is quenched in the presence of Ag NPs, as a result of the static and dynamic quenching processes. The present results suggest that ChIF has a great potential to be used in the future as an analytical tool for monitoring the interaction of plants and NPs as well as investigating the effects of NPs on plants. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ferreira, I. M., G. A. Casagrande, et al. (2014). "Ultrasound-Promoted Rapid and Efficient Iodination of Aromatic and Heteroaromatic Compounds in the Presence of Iodine and Hydrogen Peroxide in Water." Synthetic Communications 44(14): 2094-2102.
                A rapid and efficient ultrasound-promoted protocol for iodination of aromatic and heteroaromatic compounds, using molecular iodine in the presence of aqueous hydrogen peroxide in water without any cosolvent, has produced versatile iodinated organic molecules with potential application in organic synthesis and medicine in short reaction times and good to excellent yields.
Flores, A. F. C., L. A. Piovesan, et al. (2014). "From Renewable Levulinic Acid to a Diversity of 3-(Azol-3-yl) Propanoates." Journal of Heterocyclic Chemistry 51(3): 733-740.
                Efficient heterocyclization of methyl 7,7,7-trifluoro-4-methoxy-6-oxo-4-heptenoate and methyl 7,7,7-trichloro-4-methoxy-6-oxo-4-heptenoate into isoxazole and pyrazole derivatives that represent a new type of glutamate-like 3-(trihalomethylated-1,2-azol-3-yl)propanoate is reported. Preparation of the key methyl 7,7,7-trihalo-4-methoxy-6-oxohept-4-enoate precursors from levulinic acid is also described. The synthetic potential of this synthetic protocol was indicated by the production of several methyl and ethyl 3-(isoxazol-3-yl)propanoates and 3-(1H-pyrazol-3-yl)propanoates, and the respective acid derivatives, in good (70-95%) yields. The crystal structure for ethyl 5-(3-ethoxy-3-oxopropyl)-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxylate (10c) has been determined by monocrystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The N-H center dot center dot center dot H intermolecular hydrogen bonds join the molecules into catamer.
Magalhaes, K. F., A. R. L. Caires, et al. (2014). "Endogenous fluorescence of biodiesel and products thereof: Investigation of the molecules responsible for this effect." Fuel 119: 120-128.
                Regardless of the emergent use of fluorescence as an analytical method to investigate biodiesel no detailed discussion about the origin of the visible fluorescence in different biodiesel samples has been reported. Here, UV-Vis absorption and fluorescence analysis of biodiesels (soybean, corn, canola, and sunflower), standard methyl esters (stearate, palmitate, oleate, linoleate and linolenate), phenolic antioxidants, beta-carotene, alpha-tocopherol, and chlorophyll were performed in order to investigate the molecules responsible for the fluorescence in biodiesel. Additionally, mid-infrared absorption, gas chromatography as well as C-13 and H-1 nuclear magnetic resonance measurements were also carried out. The findings reveal the presence of fluorescent molecules such as conjugated tetraenes in both the standard methyl esters and biodiesel, and so these minority compounds could explain the visible fluorescence of these biodiesel samples in the 350-500 nm range under UV excitation, excluding the contribution of free fatty acids, tocopherols, carotenoids, phenolic antioxidants and chlorophyll. The results also indicate that as higher the methyl linolenate content in the biodiesel as higher the concentration of conjugated tetraenes in the biodiesel sample, explaining the intense visible fluorescence observed mainly in the soybean and canola biodiesel. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Marini, V. G., S. M. Martelli, et al. (2014). "Biodegradable Nanoparticles Obtained from Zein as a Drug Delivery System for Terpinen-4-Ol." Quimica Nova 37(5): 839-843.
                Biodegradable nanoparticles (NPs) have received considerable attention because of their possible use in the development of strategies for the topical delivery of oils and therapeutic drugs, particularly when drug penetration in dermis is desired. Zein is a prolamine and is a promising material for the design of drug delivery systems. In this study, NPs were prepared with zein and were used to encapsulate and release terpinen-4-ol, which is a therapeutic agent for the treatment of melanoma. The results show that the zein NPs are promising nanostructured systems for the prolonged delivery of T4OL with potential applications in anti-melanoma therapy.
Maugeri-Sacca, M., M. Barba, et al. (2014). "Aromatase inhibitors for metastatic male breast cancer: molecular, endocrine, and clinical considerations." Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 147(2): 227-235.
                Male breast cancer is a rare condition. Aromatase inhibitors are widely used for treating metastatic male breast cancer patients. In this setting, their use is not substantiated by prospective clinical trials, but is rather driven by similarities supposedly existing with breast cancer in postmenopausal women. This oversimplified approach was questioned by studies addressing the molecular and endocrine roots of the disease. In this manuscript, we discuss relevant aspects of the current use of aromatase inhibitors in metastatic male breast cancer in light of the most updated evidence on the molecular landscape of the disease and the specific changes in the hormonal background occurring with aging. We further point to strategies for blocking multiple hormonal pathway nodes with the goal of improving their therapeutic potential. We searched PubMed from its inception until March 2014 for relevant literature on the use of aromatase inhibitors in metastatic male breast cancer. Selected terms were combined and used both as medical headings and text words. The reference list of the suitable manuscripts was inspected for further publications. Aromatase inhibitors represent the mainstay of treatment in the metastatic setting. Yet, efforts aimed at sharpening the therapeutic potential of aromatase inhibitors still pose a challenge due to the paucity of data. The choice of dual hormonal (or sequential) therapy combining aromatase inhibitors with a GnRH analogue may represent a valid alterative, particularly if informed by cancer- and patient-related features including molecular, endocrine, and clinic characteristics.
Menegazzo, M. L., M. E. Petenuci, et al. (2014). "Production and characterization of crude and refined oils obtained from the co-products of Nile tilapia and hybrid sorubim processing." Food Chemistry 157: 100-104.
                In this study, crude oil was extracted by heating and filtering of the residual fat obtained from the processing of mechanically separated meats of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and hybrid sorubim (Pseudoplatystoma corruscans x P.fasciatum) for protein concentrate obtaining. The crude oil was refined by the following steps: degumming with 85% phosphoric acid, neutralization with 20% NaOH, washing with hot water at 85 degrees C, drying at 90 degrees C, clarification with activated charcoal and filtration with diatomaceous earth and anhydrous sodium sulfate. The quality of crude and refined oils was verified by acidity, peroxide, iodine, refractive, and saponification indexes, beyond moisture, lipid and free fatty acids contents, and density. The results show that the refining reduced the acidity index of the crude oil, however, favored the oil oxidation, as demonstrated by the increase in peroxide index. In most of the cases there was no change in the identity of the fish oils. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Munhoz, C. L., R. D. A. Guimaraes, et al. (2014). "Preparation of a cereal bar containing bocaiuva: physical, nutritional, microbiological and sensory evaluation." Acta Scientiarum-Technology 36(3): 553-560.
                Regional fruit have been increasingly used in recent years in the preparation of foodstuffs because besides promoting the biome preservation, it is obtained differentiated and value-added products. This study aimed to prepare cereal bars containing pulp and kernel of bocaiuva and determine the nutritional quality, assess the acceptability, and microbiological quality. Two formulations of cereal bar were prepared with pulp dehydrated by osmoconvection and kernel of bocaiuva. The formulations were analyzed as for the texture, color analysis, proximate composition, fatty acids profile, mineral, microbiology and sensory evaluation. Cereal bars presented on average, in g 100 g(-1), 4.83 moisture, 8.01 protein, 12.93 lipids, 1.30 ash, 53.75 total carbohydrate, 19.78 fiber and 363.41 kcal 100 g(-1) total caloric value. Bars represented a source of calcium and iron and had a high content of oleic acid, average of 20 g 100 g(-1) total lipids. In the microbiological evaluation, cereal bars have met the standards set by the legislation, being suitable for consumption. As for the attributes evaluated in the sensory analysis, all showed mean values above 6, considered acceptable for consumption. The use of bocaiuva may contribute to highlight differentiated taste and appearance, emphasizing the use of native fruits in the preparation of new products.
Oliveira, S., L. Pizzuti, et al. (2014). "Anti-Candida, Anti-Enzyme Activity and Cytotoxicity of 3,5-Diaryl-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazole-1-carboximidamides." Molecules 19(5): 5806-5820.
                Because of the need for more effective and less harmful antifungal therapies, and interest in the synthesis of new carboximidamides, the goal of this study was to determine the antifungal and anti-enzyme activities of some new pyrazole carboximidamides and their cytotoxicity. For this purpose, tests were performed to evaluate: minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC); production of proteinases and phospholipase, and cytotoxicity of the extracts. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey Tests (alpha = 5%). The results were: MIC and MFC >= 62.5 mu g/mL (C. albicans, C. parapsilosis, C. famata, C. glabrata, and Rhodotorula mucillaginosa) and MIC and MFC >= 15.6 mu g/mL (C. lipolytica). The values of proteinase and phospholipase (Pz) of C. albicans before and after exposure to the compounds were: 0.6 (+/- 0.024) and 0.2 (+/- 0.022) and 0.9 (+/- 0.074) and 0.3 (+/- 0.04),respectively. These proteinase results were not significant (p = 0.69), but those of phospholipase were (p = 0.01), and 15.6 mu/mL was the most effective concentration. The cytotoxicity means were similar among the tests (p = 0.32). These compounds could be useful as templates for further development through modification or derivatization to design more potent antifungal agents. Data from this study provide evidence that these new pyrazole formulations could be an alternative source for the treatment of fungal infections caused by Candida. However, a specific study on the safety and efficacy of these in vivo and clinical trials is still needed, in order to evaluate the practical relevance of the in vitro results.
Ramos, D. D., P. C. S. Bezerra, et al. (2015). "Synthesis and characterization of TiO2 and TiO2/Ag for use in photodegradation of methylviologen, with kinetic study by laser flash photolysis." Environmental Science and Pollution Research 22(2): 774-783.
                This paper reports the synthesis, characterization, and application of TiO2 and TiO2/Ag nanoparticles for use in photocatalysis, employing the herbicide methylviologen (MV) as a substrate for photocatalytic activity testing. At suitable metal to oxide ratios, increases in silver surface coating on TiO2 enhanced the efficiency of heterogeneous photocatalysis by increasing the electron transfer constant. The sol-gel method was used for TiO2 synthesis. P25 TiO2 was the control material. Both oxides were subjected to the same silver incorporation process. The materials were characterized by conventional spectroscopy, SEM micrography, X-ray diffraction, calculation of surface area per mass of catalyst, and thermogravimetry. Also, electron transfers between TiO2 or TiO2/Ag and MV in the absence and presence of sodium formate were investigated using laser flash photolysis. Oxides synthesized with 2.0 % silver exhibited superior photocatalytic activity for MV degradation.
Rizzo, P. V. S., L. A. Boarin, et al. (2014). "The study of biocatalyzed thio-Michael reaction: a greener and multi-gram protocol." Tetrahedron Letters 55(2): 430-434.
                This Letter introduces a new, cheap and green protocol for the thio-Michael reaction. Here we applied three free enzymes such as lipase from pancreas porcine, chymosin and papain and an immobilized one: the Liposyme (R). The reactions were executed at room temperature and resulted in the thio-Michael adduct in good or excellent yields. The protocol describes the use of EtOH as solvent and a less percentage of enzymes, which is in concordance with the green chemistry topics, so we can mention that chymosin and papain were used as biocatalyst in an organic reaction for the first time in this Letter. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rojas, S. S., J. E. De Souza, et al. (2014). "Structural, thermal and optical properties of CaBO and CaLiBO glasses doped with Eu3+." Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids 398: 57-61.
                Thermal, structural and optical properties of undoped and Eu3+ doped CaBO and CaLiBO glasses were carried out by the Raman, FT-IR, UV-Vis absorption, fluorescence, thermoluminescence and DSC analyses. The addition of Li+ to the CaBO glass changes its characteristic temperatures by decreasing the glass transition, T-g, and melting temperatures to about 40 degrees C and 50 degrees C, respectively, due to a M-O interaction (M = modifier cation) that plays an important role in determining Tg(.) Moreover, a liquid-liquid phase separation observed in the binary system was avoided after Li+ addition, which allows the melting of glasses in lower temperatures (from 1450 degrees C to 1100 degrees C). In spite of the variations on thermal properties, small changes in the glass structure concerning boron-oxygen arrangements were seen by the Raman and FT-IR when compared to the spectra obtained from all prepared samples (variations < 10% in the relative area of Gaussian peaks) and were understood in terms of an isomerization reaction among the structural units into the glass network Also important is that CaBO and CaLiBO glass matrices have a high transparency in the UV region (lambda(cut-off) < 190 nm) and this fact in combination with thermal, optical and structural characteristics indicates their high potential for optical applications. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Rossini, A. F. C., C. Frota, et al. (2014). "Palladium- and Copper-Catalyzed Highly Selective Mono-Coupling Between 2,6-Diiodoanisoles and Terminal Alkynes in the Production of Alkynylated Anisoles as Potential Precursors of Benzo[b]furans." Journal of the Brazilian Chemical Society 25(11): 2125-2132.
                The coupling reaction between 2,6-diiodoanisoles and terminal alkynes using Pd(PPh3)(2)Cl-2 and CuI as catalysts and diisopropylamine as base in toluene at room temperature for 12 h produced selectively alkynylated 2-iodoanisoles, in good to excellent yields (52-95%), which are useful building blocks with potential application in the synthesis of functionalized benzo[b]furans.
Silva, C. A. D., M. P. F. Lacerda, et al. (2014). "Physiology of Lichtheimia ramosa obtained by solid-state bioprocess using fruit wastes as substrate." Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering 37(4): 727-734.
                Due to the amount of nutrients available in the agroindustrial wastes, these can be converted into high added-value products by the action of microorganisms in solid-state bioprocesses. The aim of this work was to evaluate the growth physiology and lipase production of the fungus Lichtheimia ramosa using the following Brazilian savannah fruit wastes as substrates: bocaiuva (Acrocomia aculeata), pequi (Caryocar brasiliense), guavira (Campomanesia pubescens), araticum (Annona crassiflora) and seriguela (Spondias purpurea). These residues were triturated, homogenized, adjusted to pH 5.0 and 60 % moisture, sterilized and packaged in plastic tray-type bioreactors before inoculation with 10 % (w/v) of L. ramosa pre-culture medium. The cultivations were conducted in a bacteriological incubator at 30 degrees C for 40 days. Samples were taken every 5 days and fungi and bacteria contents, proximate composition and lipase activity were evaluated. The maximum fungal counting was observed between 25 and 35 days. L. ramosa reached the stationary phase next to 40 days in all substrates. Mesophilic and psicrophilic aerobic bacteria were not detected. Protein enrichment was obtained for all media, being superior in seriguela residues (391.66 %), followed by pequi (160.04 %), araticum (143.31 %), guavira (102.42 %), and bocaiuva (67.88 %). Lipase production was observed in all cultivated media, except in pequi residues that showed decreasing lipase activity. The higher production was observed in guavira (1.12 U/g) followed by araticum (0.58 U/g), seriguela (0.41 U/g) and bocaiuva (0.21 U/g) waste substrates. It was concluded that the studied fruit wastes have been successfully utilized as substrates for protein enrichment and lipase production with L. ramosa.
Silva, D. B. S., B. A. Crispim, et al. (2014). "Genetic variations in the leptin gene associated with growth and carcass traits in Nellore cattle." Genetics and Molecular Research 13(2): 3002-3012.
                The aim of the study was to detect polymorphisms in the leptin gene and to determine the association of these polymorphisms with growth and carcass traits in Nellore cattle. The single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) -1457 (AJ571671: g.-1457A> G) and A59V (AF536174.1:g. 321C>T), as well as the microsatellite BM1500 (3.9 kb downstream), were genotyped. The measures of body weight and ultrasound examinations (rib eye area, back, and rump fat thickness) were performed in 3 different periods of animal management. During the first period, the animals were fed with grass and mineralized salt ad libitum. In the second period, they received grass and concentrate, and in the third, only concentrate. After the slaughter of animals, data were collected for classification and typification of carcasses. No significant association was found between the variables assessed and SNP -1457. Conversely, SNP A59V was associated with rump fat thickness and muscle color post-slaughter. BM1500 was associated with rump fat thickness in the first period (pre-slaughter), subcutaneous fat thickness in the second, weight of the animals in the third, and length of the carcass after slaughter. These results suggest that SNP A59V and the microsatellite BM1500 might be useful for marker-assisted selection in Nellore cattle.
Winck, C. R., M. P. Darbem, et al. (2014). "Zn[aminoacid](2) hybrid materials applied as heterogeneous catalysts in the synthesis of beta-enaminones." Tetrahedron Letters 55(30): 4123-4125.
                Hybrid materials have seized attention from scientific community mainly as heterogenic catalysts in organic reactions on a large scale succeeding in some organic compounds with high yields. One of the most important classes of hybrid materials used for this purpose involves the complexation of Zn and aminoacids. Herein, we introduced Zn[Pro](2) and Zn[Gly](2) in the synthesis of several beta-enaminones via solvent free protocol and using an ultrasound device. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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